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Webhook Signature Verification


Pinwheel signs all webhook events that it sends to your endpoints. This allows you to verify that events were sent by Pinwheel, not a third party.

Verifying Pinwheel is the Sender

Each webhook event includes the x-pinwheel-signature header. This header contains a signature in the form {signature_version}={signature_digest}. The {signature_version} should be v2. The {signature_digest} is a hex-encoded string generated using the signature algorithm.

You should use a string comparison function that is safe against timing attacks when comparing signatures. Otherwise, it may be possible for an attacker to ascertain information about secret values such as your API Secret. See the examples below for constant-time comparison functions in various languages.

Signature Algorithm

The signature algorithm is specified in pseudo-code. We also include example implementations in various languages. To verify that your implementation is compliant, please leverage the test suite at the bottom of this page.

  1. Retrieve the {timestamp}, stored in the x-timestamp header.
  2. Retrieve the {raw_request_body}.
    1. This should be the un-parsed, un-decoded bytes from the HTTP request body. No UTF-8 decoding or JSON processing should have occurred on this value. We use the raw bytes to avoid per-language/framework processing differences.
    2. See the examples below for how to retrieve this in various web frameworks.
  3. Set {key} as your API Secret.
  4. Construct the {msg_prefix} by UTF-8 encoding the string {signature_version}:{timestamp}:. Notice the trailing :.
  5. Construct the {msg} by byte-concatenating {msg_prefix} and {raw_request_body}.
  6. Calculate the {raw_digest} by running HMAC-SHA256 with {key} on {msg}.
  7. Produce {signature_digest} by hex-encoding the {raw_digest}.

Example Implementations

# Python
import hmac
import hashlib

def verify_signature(signature, timestamp, raw_body):
  msg = f"v2:{timestamp}:".encode("utf-8") + raw_body
  digest =
  generated_signature = f"v2={digest}"
  return hmac.compare_digest(signature, generated_signature)

# Example for Flask
def webhook_view(request):
  signature = request.headers.get("x-pinwheel-signature")
  timestamp = request.headers.get("x-timestamp")
  raw_body = request.get_data(parse_form_data=True) # raw HTTP request body as a bytestring
  # for Django, `raw_body = request.body`
  # for Starlette/FastAPI, `raw_body = await request.body()`
  if not verify_signature(signature, timestamp, raw_body):
    raise Exception("Invalid webhook request signature")
// Javascript
const crypto = require('crypto');
const express = require('express');

function verifySignature(signature, timestamp, rawBody) {
  const prefix = Buffer.from(`v2:${timestamp}:`, 'utf8');
  const message = Buffer.concat([prefix, rawBody]);
  const digest = crypto.createHmac('sha256', Buffer.from(process.env.YOUR_PINWHEEL_API_SECRET, 'utf8')).update(message).digest('hex');
  const generatedSignature = `v2=${digest}`;

  const bufSig = Buffer.from(signature);
  const bufGen = Buffer.from(generatedSignature);

  return bufSig.length === bufGen.length && crypto.timingSafeEqual(bufSig, bufGen);

export const authMiddleware = express.json({
  verify: (request, response, buffer) => {
    const signature = request.headers['x-pinwheel-signature']
    const timestamp = request.headers['x-timestamp']

    if (verifySignature(signature, timestamp, buffer)) return;

    throw new Error('Invalid webhook request signature');
// Java
// - leveraging the okio library (
import okio.Buffer;
import okio.ByteString;

class PinwheelWebhookUtilities {
  static ByteString SIGNATURE_PREFIX = ByteString.encodeUtf8("v2:");
  static ByteString SIGNATURE_SEP = ByteString.encodeUtf8(":");
  static int SIGNATURE_VERSION_HEADER_LEN = "v2=".length();

  public static boolean verifySignature(String signature, String timestamp, ByteString rawBody) {
    try (Buffer msg = new Buffer()) {
      ByteString digest = msg.hmacSha256(ByteString.encodeUtf8("YOUR_API_SECRET"));
      ByteString expectedDigest = ByteString.decodeHex(signature.substring(SIGNATURE_VERSION_HEADER_LEN));
      return digest.equals(expectedDigest);

Test Suite

We've put together test cases to cover a variety of payload structures your signature implementation may need to accommodate. To be prepared for the set of valid webhook events our system may send your endpoints your signature algorithm implementation must be compliant with the first 4 (text-based) test cases and should be compliant with the last (non-text) test case.

We used the following parameters as fixed inputs when generating each {signature_digest}:

  • {timestamp} = 860860860
  • {key} = the string TEST_KEY UTF-8 encoded, i.e. 544553545f4b4559 in hex, i.e. "TEST_KEY".encode("utf-8") in Python.

You should download the test case files directly, using a command such as curl --remote-name $TEST_CASE_FILE_URL, to avoid introducing newlines or other extraneous characters into them which will affect their binary contents. Similarly, when viewing test cases make sure to use a read-only mechanism, such as cat $TEST_CASE_FILE, to avoid affecting their binary contents.

Test Case DescriptionTest Case File, {raw_request_body}{signature_digest}
Base JSON payloadtest_data_1_base.json42fb9eba200e821d4de63667f5a30f7e1b83609b135e148e26ce01eef2aa6ba8
Base JSON with keys in a different ordertest_data_2_reordered.json032457677fee3481d60bdd3896554762f0d66ad277fead31da997ead50a645f6
Base JSON with all whitespace removedtest_data_3_no_whitespace.json46df1cb08a430de9c808de2b5209dea4a4fafca5a8a3a0c5af0ca705c62f3c32
Base JSON with characters (emoji) outside the Latin-1 character settest_data_4_non_latin1.json1d694c72f8d5e00ef80f63bb3963f1097a02c4fb79cc7624eb42d6d566655d2d
Binary, non-text data (image)test_data_5_non_text.jpg3ebb15420de1f53cb20e0660c57952dabff41d9c38f718fb3ddec6140199f1d8

IP Address Allow List

Pinwheel will only send webhook events from a fixed number of IP addresses. For an extra layer of security, you should reject requests from elsewhere. The IP addresses are:


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